Heart murmur is an abnormal sound that your veterinarian may hear when listening to your pet's heart with a stethoscope. Normally there are two distinct sounds audible, which are often described as "boo" and "put". So when you listen to the heart with a stethoscope you can hear something like this: Bu-tup, bu-tup, bu-tup.A murmur is an additional sound that can sometimes override normal heart sounds. It occurs most frequently between "boo" and "tup" and can be described as "shhh" or "pfu".A heart...čítať ďalej
Inflammatory Diseases of the Central Nervous System of Dogs and Cats
The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord, which are protected from external influences by bone. The skull protects the brain and the spinal cord is protected with backbone. Between the bones and elements of the CNS are protective covers of fibrous tissue, which are called meninges. There are three meninges: the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater.Inflammatory disorders of the CNS which affect the brain are known as encephalitis. Concomitant diseases can be inflammation...čítať ďalej
Oncology and chemotherapy
As dogs and cats age, their incidence of cancer increases. Significant progress in veterinary medicine allows for effective treatment of many of these diseases. We have a number of highly effective treatment methods, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Other approaches are known as palliative. The goal of palliative treatment is not to completely cure the patient, but to extend his life and improve quality of life. We also must not forget the promotion of complementary methods,...čítať ďalej
Oral Disease in Dogs and Cats
Oral hygiene is an important, but often overlooked, factor in the overall health of your animal. Although dogs and cats often do not suffer from dental caries, periodontal disease arising from the gums can then attack the teeth. Studies show that 80% of dogs and 70% of cats at 3 years of age suffer from this disease. The owner should make routine checks of the teeth, gums and mouth. Signs of oral disease are loose teeth, discolored teeth, teeth covered with tartar, bleeding from the mouth, reluctance...čítať ďalej
Inflammation of the ears is either independent or appearing in connection with other skin diseases.
The primary causative factors are ear mites, foreign bodies (mostly hair), injuries, allergies, particularly atopy and allergy to food, autoimmune disorders, and pyoderma. Tumors or polyps are less often causes.
In some breeds, inflammation of the ears occurs more often. Predisposition is affected by various factors including narrow ear canals, hair sprouting from the canal (poodle), water entering...čítať ďalej
Patent ductus arteriosus
In a fetus, the ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that connects the main pulmonary artery and aorta. It allows blood to bypass the non-functional fetal lung. Normally it closes shortly after birth. If it remains open, it is called patent ductus arteriosus. PDA is the most common congenital heart defect in young animals. PDA causes a left-to-right shunt that leads to excessive volume loading of the left ventricle of the heart and consequently causes its dilatation and hypertrophy. This can lead...čítať ďalej
Dogs and cats have two anal sacs in the anal area. The walls of these sacs contain glands that produce odor secretions. Excretory ducts are located in the lining of the rectum just before the anus. Normally, the glands are emptied during defecation, leaving characteristic smell for identification and communication among other animals.
A number of dogs have a disorder in which these glands do not empty, but rather overflow, which is uncomfortable for the dog. Dogs with clogged anal glands will usually...čítať ďalej
STABILIZATION OF RUPTURED CRUCIATE LIGAMENT OF THE FRONT KNEE
The knee is a complex joint which moves in two main layers. This is secured by cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments. During exercise, the cranial cruciate ligament prevents the tibia or the knee from drifting forward or cranial, as well as prevents internal rotation and also partial knee hyperextension. Rupture (tear) of the ligament is one of the most common causes of hind limb lameness in dogs. This results from several anatomical anomalies, such as a steep tibial plateau, patellar luxation, or...čítať ďalej
Toxic encephalopathy associated with high-dose metronidazole therapy in a dog: a case report
I. Hajek1 *, V. Simerdova1 , M. Vavra2 , C.F. Agudelo2 1 Small Animal Referral Centre Sibra, Bratislava, Slovak Republic 2 Small Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Brno, Czech Republic *Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT: This case report describes an episode of acute ataxia, tremor, vertical nystagmus and progressive weakness in a mixed breed dog treated with high doses of metronidazole. Complete blood cell count,...čítať ďalej
Warm Up Before Sports Performance
Warm Up for ExerciseAlthough cynology community slowly becomes aware of the need to warm up the dogs before sporting exercise, it still does not stand its strong place in the training and racing routine of most handlers. Often, dogs are still warmed up only just before an important race or a focused training. In local races or during normal training the warm up is still absent, due to lack of will or time. There are many handlers that are aware of the importance of warming up, but do not know the...čítať ďalej